رابطه ی علی پیوند والدینی با قلدری در مدرسه با میانجی‌گری ویژگی‌های شخصیتی دانش‌آموز و کیفیت ارتباط معلم-دانش‌آموز در دانش‌آموزان پسرسال دوم دبیرستان شهر اهواز: یک مدل پیسنهادی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شهید چمران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

افراد در زندگی به دلیل مواجهه با موقعیتهای غیرقابل پیش بینی و شرایط دشوار زندگی به‌طور پیوسته در زندگی به مشاوره و راهنمایی نیاز دارند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین تاثیر مشاوره گروهی با رویکرد راه­حل مدار بر عملکرد خانواده و رضایت زناشویی زنان شهر مشهد اجرا گردید. پژوهش حاضر یک پژوهش کاربردی و از نوع شبه آزمایشی بود (طرح پیش آزمون و پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل). جامعه پژوهش شامل کلیه زنان متاهل مراجعه‌کننده به مرکز مشاوره دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1393 بود، که 20 زن متأهل از میان شرکت‌کنندگان با روش نمونه­گیری داوطلبانه انتخاب شدند و به‌طور تصادفی در گروه آزمایش و گروه کنترل قرار گرفتند. آزمودنی­ها پرسشنامه رضایت زناشویی انریچ و مقیاس عملکرد خانواده (FAD-1) در دو نوبت پیش آزمون و پس آزمون را تکمیل کردند. زنان گروه آزمایش در 8 جلسه درمان با رویکرد راه حل مدار و هر جلسه به مدت 2 ساعت شرکت کردند و زنان گروه کنترل هیچ مداخله­ای دریافت نکردند. داده­ها با استفاده از آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس یک راهه و نرم‌افزار 21-SPSS تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر مشاوره گروهی راه­حل مدار بر عملکرد خانواده و رضایت زناشویی گروه آزمایش به‌طور معناداری مؤثر است. به هر حال، می­توان نتیجه گرفت که به کارکرد نامناسب خانواده و رضایت زناشویی پایین در زنان متاهل می­تواند تحت تاثیر مشاوره گروهی راه­حل مدار بهبود پیدا کند. همچنین این رویکرد می‌تواند برای ارتقای رضایت زناشویی و عملکرد خانواده به‌عنوان یک روش کارآمد در حوزه خانواده به‌کار گرفته شود.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


احدی، بتول (1386). رابطه شخصیت و رضایت زناشویی. روان شناسی معاصر، 2، 37-31.

زاهدیان، فتح الله؛ کیمیایی، مسعود و سامانی، سیامک (1390). نقش سبک­های دلبستگی، پیوند والدینی و خودپنداره جنسی در اعتیاد. مجله روانشناسی بالینی، 3، 3، 73-65. 

شاقیان، زینب؛ آگیلار وفایی، ماریا و رسول­زاده طباطبایی، سیدکاظم (1390). بررسی طرح واره­ها و پیوند والدینی در دختران نوجوان با وزن طبیعی، چاق و یا دارای علائم بی اشتهایی عصبی. مجله پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، 16، 1، 38 -30.

شهنی ییلاق، منیجه؛ عزیزی مهر، الهه و مکتبی، غلامحسین (1392). رابطه­ی علی تعارض آشکار و تعارض نهان بین والدین با عملکرد تحصیلی با میانجی­گری رابطه­ی والد-فرزند، رفتار ضد اجتماعی و افسردگی در دانش­آموزان دبیرستانی. فصلنامه مشاوره کاربردی، 3، 2، 16-1.

 

Ahmed, C., & Braithwaite, U. (2004). Bullying and victimization: cause for concern for both Families and Schools. Social Psychology of Education, 7(1), 35-54.

Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Huan, V. S., Quek, C. L., & Yeo, L. S. (2008). Teacher–student relationship inventory: Testing for invariance across upper elementary and junior high samples. Journal of Psycho educational Assessment, 26, 339–349.

Arbeau, K. A., Coplan, R. J., & Weeks, M. (2010). Shyness, teacher–child relationships, and socio-emotional adjustment in grade 1. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 259–269.

Avagianou, P. A., & Zafiropoulou, M. (2008). Parental bonding and depression: Personality as a mediating factor. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20(3), 261-269.

Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Parenting influences on bullying and victimization. Criminal and Legal Psychology, 3, 237–254.

 Bidjerano, T., & Yun Dai, D. (2007). The relationship between the Big-Five model of personality and self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 69–81.

Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1998). Children’s interpersonal behaviors and the teacher–child       relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34, 934–946.

 Bollmer, J. M., Harris, M. J., & Milich, R. (2006). Reactions to bullying and peer victimization: Narratives, physiological arousal, and personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 803–828.

Book, A.S., Volk, A. A., & Hosker, A. (2012). Adolescent bullying and personality: An adaptive approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 218- 223.

Chambers, J. A., Power, K. G., Loucks, N., & Swanson, V. (2000). Psychometric properties of the parental bonding instrument and its association with psychological distress in a group of incarcerated young offenders in Scotland. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(7),318-25.

Connolly, I., & O’Moore, M. (2003). Personality and family relations of children who bully. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 559-567.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (2005). Changing minds, Big Five Factor. National Institutes of Health, 21(5), 303-307.

  David, S. B., Margaret B., & Michael, L. (2005). Antecedents of emotion knowledge: Predictors of individual differences in young children. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 375-396.

  Diener, E., Larsen, R. J., & Emmons, R. A. (1984). Person x situation interactions: Choice of situations and congruence response models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 580–592.

Dijkstra, P., & Barelds, D. P. H. (2008). Self and partner personality and responses to relationship threats. Journal of Research in Personality, 42,1500-1511.

 Eskisua, M. (2014) .The relationship between bullying, family functions and perceived social support among high school students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 492 – 496. 

Furukawa, T. (1992). Perceived parental rearing, personality and mental status in Japanese adolescents.  Journal of  Adolescence, 15, 322-317.

Graziano, W. G., Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Hair, E. C. (1996). Perceiving interpersonal conflict and reacting to it: The case for agreeableness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 820–835.

Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of       children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638.

  Hastings, S. E., & O’ Neill, T. A. (2009). Predicting workplace deviance broad versus narrow personality variables. Personality and Individual Differences. 47(4), 289-293.

  Howes, C., Phillipsen, L. C., & Peisner Feinberg, E. (2000). The consistency of perceived teacher–child relationships between preschool and kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 113–132.

 Hughes, J. N., Gleason, K. A. & Zhang, D. (2005). Relationship influences on teachers’ perceptions of academic competence in academically at-risk minority and majority first grade students. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 303–320. 

Kendler, K. S.,  Kessler, R. C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993). The prediction of major depression in women toward an integrated etiologic mode. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1139–1148.

Klevens, J., & Hall, J. (2014). The importance of parental warmth, support, and control in preventing adolescent misbehavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior, 2 (1), 1-8.

Lamb, M. E., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. (2004). The role of father. In M. E Lamb (Ed.). The role of the father in child development, 1-31. New York: Wiley.

LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with Big Five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326–336.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1985). Updating Norman's adequate taxonomy: Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 710-721.

Meehan, B. T., Hughes, J. N., & Cavell, T. A. (2003). Teacher–student relationships as compensatory resources for aggressive children. Child Development, 74, 1145–1157.

Menesini, E., Camodeca, M., & Nocentini, A. (2010). Bullying among siblings: The role of personality and relational variables. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 921–939.

Misopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2013). The relationship between perceived parental bonding and bullying: The mediating role of empathy. The European­ Journal of       Counseling Psychology, 2(1), 1-16.

Mitsopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2015). Personality traits, empathy and bullying behavior: A meta-analytic approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 21, 61–72.

Murray, Ch., & Zvoch, K. (2011a). The Inventory of Teacher-Student Relationships: factor structure, reliability, and validity among African American youth in low-income urban schools. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(4), 493–525.

Murray, Ch., & Zvoch, K. (2011b). Teacher-student relationships among behaviorally at risk African American youth from low-income backgrounds: student perceptions, teacher perceptions, and socio-emotional adjustment correlates. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 19(1), 41– 54.

Mynard, H., & Joseph, S. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck’s personality dimensions in 8 to 13-year olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 51–54.

 Nakao, K., Takaishi, J., Tatsuta, K., Katayama, H., Iwase, M., Yorifuji, K., & Takeda, M. (2000). The influences of family environment on personality traits. Journal of         Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 54, 91-95.

Natvig, G., Albrektsen, G., & Qvarnstrom, U. (2001). School-related stress experience as a           risk factor for bullying behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 561−575.

Ojedokun, O., Ogungbamila, A., & Kehinde, D. (2013). Perception of parental bonding and tendency to perpetrate aggressive behavior in a sample of Nigerian students. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2(3), 117-124.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bully/victim problem in school: Know ledge base and a effective intervention program. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 197-190.

Papanikolaou, M., Chatzikoma, T., & Kleio, K. (2011). Bullying at school: The role of family. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 433- 442.

Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A Parental Bonding Instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.

Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2011). Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A Test of General Strain Theory. Journal of Youth and Society, 43(2), 727- 751.#3

Pleck, J. H. (2007). Why could father involvement benefit children? Theoretical perspectives.  Applied Development Science, 11, 196-202.#3

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effect in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Method, 40, 879-891.

Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K., Harris, K.M., Jones, J., (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823– 832.  

Rudasill, K. M., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2009). Teacher-child relationship quality: The roles of child temperament and teacher-child interaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 107-120.

Russ, E., Heim, A., & Westen, D. (2003). Parental bonding and personality pathology assessed by clinician report. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17(6), 522-536.

Sanders, C. E., & Phye, G. D. (2004). Bullying: Implications for the classroom. London. Elsevier Academic Press.

Scott, T. M., Nelson, C. M., & Liaupsin, C. J. (2001). Effective instruction: The forgotten component in preventing school violence. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 309-322.

Smith, P. K., & Brain, B. F. (2000). Bullying in the school. Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 1-9.

Tengteng, T., &  Naiyi, W. (2013). The influence of student personality and teacher-student interactions on teacher-student relationship quality. Journal Beijing Normal University (Social Science), 1, 174-177.

Thijs, J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2009). Toward a further understanding of teachers' reports of early teacher–child relationships: Examining the roles of behavior appraisals and attributions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 186–197.

Wang, Y., Liu, Y. H., & Li, Y. M. (2004). Personality types and influencing factors of juvenile aged 10 to 14 years old in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, 8, 7481-7483.

Williams, E., & Radin, N. (1999). Effects of father participation in child rearing: Twenty-year follow-up. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 328-336.

 Williams, C. L., Harfmann, E. J., Ingram, R. E.,  Kelsey, E., Hagan, K. E., & Kramer, N. M. (2015). Specificity of parental bonding and rumination in depressive and anxious emotional distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 157–161.

Zee, M., Koomen, H. M., & Van der Veen, I. (2013). Student-teacher relationship quality and academic adjustment in upper elementary school: the role of student personality.Journal of School Psychology, 51(4), 517-533