Abolfathi, M. (2012). Comparison of initial maladaptive schemas among students with high test anxiety and normal students. M.A. Thesis in Consultation, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran. (Persian)
Aghayousefi, A., Saravani, S., Zeraatee, R., Razeghi, F. S., & Pourabdol, S. ( 2016). Prediction of students’ academic performance based on attachment styles and different levels of adjustment. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 21(4), 308- 316. (Persian)
Ahi, Q. (2006). Standardization of the Young Form Schema Short Form. M.A. Thesis in Psychology, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran. (Persian)
Alizadeh, F. (2011). Investigating the relationship between schemes early mismatches with couples' marital conflicts. M.A. Thesis in Counseling, Payame Noor University of Tabriz Branch, Tabriz. (Persian)
Arefnia, S., Sarandi, P., & Yousefi, R. (2012). The comparison of early maladaptive schemas in secondary school students with and without school anxiety. Journal of Psychology, 1(4), 74-89. (Persian)
Baranoff, J., Oeil, T. (2007). Young Schema Questionnaire: Review of psychometric and measurement issues. Australian Journal of Psychology, 7(95), 27-78.
Basharat, M. A. (2000). Standardization of attachment scale.
Research Report of University of Tehran. http://jip.azad.ac.ir
. (Persian (
Bashirpur, M., Salimi, M., & Farahbakhsh, K. (2013). Comparison the effect of group counseling based on existential and cognitive-behavioural approaches on the degree of shyness of students. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 14(52), 51-60. (Persian)
Baumrind, D. (1972). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1-2), 1–103.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Berk, L. (2002). Child developments (Vol. 5). New York: Brooks/Cole.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and love (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, G., Gustafsson, H. C., Millskoonce, R., & Cox, M. J. (2017). Associations between early caregiving & rural, low-SES, African-American children's representations of attachment relationships. Journal of Attachment & Human Development, 19(4), 340-363.
Brone, L., Lionetti, F., & Green, J. (2017). A matter of attachment? How adoptive parents foster post. Institutionalized Children's Social & Emotional Adjustment, 19(4), 323-339.
Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 110-119.
Buss, D. M. (1991). Evolutionary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42(1), 459-491.
Chen, X., Fu, R., Li, D., & Liu, J. (2019). Developmental trajectories of shyness-sensitivity from middle childhood to early adolescence in China: Contributions of peer preference and mutual friendship. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(7), 1197-1209.
Chen, Y. M., Wu, Y. P., Zhang, Y. J., Wang, P., Han, L., & Gao, F. Q. (2014). Relationships between parenting style, self-perception and shyness among Chinese early adolescents. Psychology Research, 4(11), 897-904.
Coplan, R. J., Parkash, K., O`Neil, K., & Armer, M. (2004). Do You “Want” to Play? Distinguishing Between conflicted shyness and social disinterest in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 244-258.
Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1994). Cognitive representations of attachment: The structure and function of working models. London: Jessica Kingseley.
Colonnesi, C., Nikolić, M., Vente, W. d., & Bögels, S. M. (2016). Social anxiety symptoms in young children: Investigating the interplay of theory of mind and expressions of shyness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487-496.
Darvizeh, Z., Azadi, Sh. (2010). The Relationship between parenting styles and shyness in high school girls in Noorabad Mamsani. Journal of Women and Society, 1(2), 47-63. (Persian)
Davoudi, I., Basak, S., & Zarezadegan, B. (2012). The effectiveness of positive parent training in reducing conduct problems of children and maternal stress of their mothers. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling, 2(2), 45-59. (Persian)
Eggum-Wilkens, N. D., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2015). Self-conscious shyness: Growth during toddlerhood, strong role of genetics, and no prediction from fearful shyness. Journal of the International Congress of Infant Studies, 20(2), 160-188.
Esfandiari, Gh. (1995). Comparison of parenting styles of mothers in two groups of children with behavioral disorder and the effect of mothers' education on reducing behavioral disorder. M.A. Thesis in Psychology, Tehran Psychiatric Research Institute. (Persian).
Faramarzi, S., Taghipour. J. A. A., Dehghani, M., & Moradi, M. R. (2013). The investigation and comparison between the attachment styles and mothers of parenting styles in ordinal students and students with learning disorder . Journal of Jentashapir, 4(3), 245-254. (Persian)
Farahini, N., Afrouz, Gh. A., & Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaee, S. K. (2013). The Relationship between parenting styles and shyness with creativity in gorgeous. School of Psychology, 2(4), 137-153. (Persian)
Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511-524.
Hosseinchari, M., Delavrapour, M., & Dehghani, Y. (2007). The role of parenting styles on high school students’ shyness. Contempoary Psychology Magazine, 2(2), 21-30. (Persian)
Jaafari, A., & Mehrafzoun, D. (2013). Effect of positive thinking skills training on adolescence shyness. Journal of Psychological Research, 5(20), 12-20. (Persian)
Jill, L., Michiel, F., & Vreeswijk, A. (2008). An empirical test of schemas mode conceptualizations in personality disorders. Journal of Behavior Research and Therapy, 46(7), 854-860.
Johnston, C., Dorahy, M. J., Courtney, D., Bayles, T., & O'Kane, M. (2009). Dysfunctional schema modes, childhood trauma and dissociation in borderline personality disorder. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 40(2), 248-255.
Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(1), 168-181.
Koumoundourou, G., Tsaousis, I., & Kounenou, K. (2011). Parental influences on greek adolescents’ career decision-making difficulties: The mediating role of core self-evaluations. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(2), 165-182.
Lobbestael, J., Arentz, A., & Sieswerda, S. (2005). Schema modes and childhood abuse in borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36(3), 240-253.
Lotfi, R., Donyavi, V., & Khosravi, Z. (2007). Comparison of early maladaptive schemas between personality disorder (cluster B) and normal subjects. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research, 5(2), 1262-1266. (Persian)
Masud, H., Ahmad, M. S., Cho, K. W., & Fakhr, Z. (2019). Parenting styles and aggression among young adolescents: A systematic review of literature. Community Mental Health Journal, 55, 1015-1030.
Mohammad Sadeghi, H., Ahmadzad Asl, M., Mohammad Sadeghi, M., Ghanbari Jolfaei, A., & Nohesara, S. (2015). Comparison of attachment styles in subjects with and without obesity. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 37-49. (Persian)
Moosavi Asl, S., & Moosavi Sadat, Z. (2014). The effectiveness of schema therapy in reduction of early maladaptive schemas on PTSD veterans men. Armaghane Danesh, 19(1), 89-99. (Persian)
Miller, J., Schmidt, L., & Vaillancourt, T. (2008). Shyness, sociability, and eating problems in a non- clinical sample of female undergraduates. Eating Behaviors, 9(3), 352-359.
Najafali Beigi, N. (2011). Comparison of parenting styles and early maladaptive schemas of students with social anxiety and normal students of Arak girls' high school, M.A. Thesis in Consultation, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran. (Persian (
Najafi, M., Bitaraf, M., Mohammadifar, M. A., & Zarei Motah Kalabi, E. (2015). The comparison of primary maladaptive schemas and cognitive insight between divorced and normal women. Journal of Woman and Famele Studes, 6(4), 41-58. (Persian)
Odacı, H., & Çıkrıkçı, O. (2014). Problematic internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being in university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 61-66.
Oshri, A., Sutton, T. E., Clay Warner, J., & Miller, J. D. (2015). Child maltreatment types and risk behaviors: Associations with attachment style and emotion regulation dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 127-133.
Oroee, S. (2010). The Relationship between Attachment Styles and Shyness with Students' Achievement. M.A. Thesis in Psychology, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran. (Persian)
Pakdel, Y. (2010). Comparison of early maladaptive scheme in normal and absolute individuals in Sabzevar. M.A. Thesis in Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Roudehen Branch, Roudehen. (Persian)
, A., Nour
, A., Oreizy
, H., Molavi
, H., & Foroughi Mobarake,
A. (2007). Relationship between Adult Attachment Styles with Job Satisfaction and Job Stress in Nurses
.Iranian Jornal of Psychiatry & Clinicak Psychology
(2), 148-157. (Persian)
Rajabi, GH., Mousavian Nejad, Kh., & Taghipour, M. (2014). Relationships attachment styles and emotional intelligence with marital satisfaction and marital conflict in married female teachers. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling, 4(1), 49-66. (Persian)
Riggs, S. A., & Han, G. (2009). Porodictors of anxity and depression in emergining adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 16(1), 39-52.
Rose, J., Roman, N., Mwaba, K., & Ismail, K. (2017). The relationship between parenting & internalizing behaviors of children: A systematic review. Journal of Early Child Developmental & Care, 187(8), 1-19.
Roshan Qeyas, E., Yousefpour, Gh., Anderwazh, S. T., & Khalili, S. (2016). Study of the relationship between attachment styles and identity with shyness in male students (first high school district of Dari Sari). Journal of Researches of the United Nations, 12(1), 90-73. (Persian)
Samui, R. (2003). Shyness Test.
Research Report of Sina's institute for the study of the behavioral sciences (Ravan Tahiz), 103. www.ravantajhiz.ir
Seddigh Arfaei, F., & Najaryan, Z. (2016). The relationship among attachment styles & assertiveness among university students. Frooyesh. 4(4), 35-48. (Persian)
Shahamat, F., Sabeti, A. R., & Rezvani, S. (2010). The relationship between parenting styles and early maladaptive schemas. Psychology and Educational Studies. Faculty of Educational Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 11(2), 239-254. (Persian)
Shaver, P., Schachner, D., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Attachment style, excessive reassurance seeking, relationship processes, and depression. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 31(3), 343–359.
Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., Anderson, S., & Strong, D. R. (2013). Changes in early maladaptive schemas after residential treatment for substance use. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 912-922.
Skeen, M. (2007). A schema–focused analysis of Philip care in w, Somerset Maugham's "of Human Bondage. Journal of Human BondageWright Institute, 105, 481- 495.
Taghavi, F., Irandost, R., Faramarzi, S., & Nikobakht, S. (2013). A study on the relationship between parenting with shyness of high school students in Eghlid. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. (Persian)
Tan, C. S., Lau, X. S., & Lee, L. K. (2017). The mediating role of creative process engagement in the relationship between shyness & self-rated creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 51(3), 1-9.
Turner, H. M., Rose, K. S., & Cooper, M. J. (2005). Parental bonding and disorder symptoms in adolescents: The meditating role of core beliefs. Eating Behaviours, 6(2), 113-118.
Waller, G., Caroline, M., & Vartouhi, O. (2001). Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(2), 137-147.
Wright, M. O. D., Crawford, E., & Castillo, D. D. (2009). Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(1), 59-68.
Yan, Y. C., Boen, C., Greken, K., Schorpp, K., & Harris, K. M. (2016). Social relationship & physiological determinant of longevity across the human life span. Proceedings of The National Academy Sciences of The United States of America, 113(3), 578-583.
Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema- focused approach (3rd ed). Sarasota. FL: Professional Resource Press.
Zarei, E. (2010). Relationship between parent child– rearing practices and High Risk Behavior on Basis of Cloninger's Scale. Journal of Shaheed Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 18(3), 220-224. (Persian)
Zimbardo, P. G., & Radl, S. R. (1981). The shy child. New York: McGraw-Hill.
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).