بررسی مشاوره‌ گروهی مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد بر شادکامی و نشخوار فکری زنان نابارور

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی اصیل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران (نویسنده مسئول)

2 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره خانواده، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22055/jac.2020.29148.1668

چکیده

ناباروری عاملی مؤثر در ایجاد مشکلات فردی و اجتماعی است که می‌تواند افراد مبتلا را در معرض فشارهای روانی گوناگونی قرار دهد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثربخشی مشاوره‌ی گروهی مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد (ACT) بر نشخوار فکری و شادکامی زنان نابارور در یک طرح پژوهش نیمه آزمایشی با پیش آزمون، پس‌آزمون و پیگیری با گروه کنترل انجام گرفت. جامعه‌ی این پژوهش تمامی زنان نابارور مراجعه‌کننده به مرکز ناباروری میلاد در شهر مشهد بود. 20 زن نابارور به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و داوطلبانه انتخاب شدند و به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش (10 زن نابارور) و کنترل (10 زن نابارور) اختصاص یافتند. شرکت‌کننده‌ها پرسش‌نامه‌های نشخوار فکری- وسواسی (نولن هوکسما و مارو) و شادکامی آکسفورد را تکمیل نمودند. شرکت‌کننده‌های گروه آزمایش در هشت جلسه‌ی شصت تا نود دقیقه‌ای تحت مداخلة مشاوره‌ی گروهی مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد قرار گرفتند و شرکت‌کننده‌های گروه کنترل مداخله‌ای دریافت نکردند. تحلیل داده‌ها به روش آماری تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری‌های مکرر و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری 25-SPSS انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که مشاوره‌ی گروهی مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد، نشخوار فکری زنان نابارور را کاهش و شادکامی آنان را افزایش داده است (001/ 0 ›p ). بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری مشاوره‌ی گروهی مبتنی بر پذیرش و تعهد برای مشاوران خانواده و روان‌شناسان بالینی جهت کاهش نشخوار فکری و افزایش شادکامی زنان نابارور می‌تواند مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

Ahadifar, F. (2015). Effectiveness of MCT treatment on ruminating and depression of female teachers. Thesis for Master of Science (MSc), Azad University, Neyshabur. (Persian)

Alipour, A., Hashemi Nosrat Abad, T., Babapourkheiruddin, J. ,& Toosi, F. (2010). The Relationship between Coping Strategies and Happiness of Students. New Psychological Research (Psychology, University of Tabriz), 5 (18), 86-71. (Persian)

Almasi, M. (2016). Related factors in the happiness of infertile women in Ilam city, Nasim Health Quarterly, 5(1), 10-18. (Persian)

Asadi, S., Abedini, M., Poursarifi, H. & Nikookar, M. (2012). The Relationship between uncertainty tolerance and intellectual ruminance with concern in the student's population. Clinical Psychology, 4 (4), 91-83. (Persian)

Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. In J.P. Forgas. & J. M. Innes (Eds), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective, (pp. 189-203). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Arnow, B. A., Spangler, D., Klein, D. N., & Burns, D. D. (2004). Rumination and distraction among chronic depressives in treatment: A structural equation analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 67– 83.

Bahrami, F., & Mahmoudi, A. (2007). Effect of positive and negative induced emotions on worry and rumination caused by previous induced negative emotions. New Cognitive Science, 9 (2), 76-69. (Persian)

 De Houwer, J., Barnes‐Holmes, Y., & Barnes‐Holmes, D. (2016). Riding the waves: A functional‐cognitive perspective on the relations among behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. International Journal of Psychology51(1), 40-44.

Bordbar, L., Salehi, S., & Rahbar, T. (2016). A comparison of perfectionism and coping strategies in infertile and normal couples. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences6(1), 97-101.

Brinker, J. K., & Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology65(1), 1-19.

Davis, R. N., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research24(6), 699-711.

Demehri, F., Saeedmanesh, M., & Jala, N. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on rumination and well-being in adolescents with general anxiety disorder. Journal of Middle Eastern Disability Studies, 8, 25-25. (Persian)

Faal Kalkhoran, L., Bahrami,; Farrokhi, N.A., Zeraati, H., & Trrahomi, M. (2011). Comparison of anxiety, depression and marital satisfaction in two selected groups of fertile and infertile women in Tehran. Fertility and Infertility, 12 (2), 163-157. (Persian)

Farid, F. (2013). The effectiveness of teaching the components of happiness on positive and negative affect and quality of life in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Master's thesis in consulting and guidance. Islamic Azad University, Research Center of Khorasan Razavi (Neyshabur). (Persian)

Hadi Nejad, H., & Zeraati, F. (2009). Reliability, validity and standardization of the Oxford Happiness Inventory, Psychological Research, 12 (1 and 2), 75-62. (Persian)

Hashemi, Ali poor, A., & Feili, A. (2013). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management therapy on happiness among infertile women, Armaghane-danesh, Armaghane-danesh, Journal of Yasuj University Medical Sciences. 18(9), 678-686. (Persian)

Hayes, S. C. (2005). Stability and change in cognitive behavior therapy: Considering the implications of ACT and RFT. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy23(2), 131-151.

Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J., & Levin, M. E. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy as a unified model of behavior change. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(7), 976-1002.

Hayes, S. C., & Lillis, J. A. S. O. N. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Theories of psychotherapy. The American Psychological Association, Washington DC.

Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behavior Research and Therapy44(1), 1-25.

Hayes, S. C., & Strosahl, K. D. (Eds.). (2010). A practical guide to acceptance and commitment therapy. Springer Science & Business Media.

Heydari, P., & Latif Nezhad, R. (2010). The relationship between psychosocial factors and marital satisfaction of infertile women. Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 14 (1), 32-26. (Persian)

Heidari, F., Asgari, P., Heidari, A, Pasha, R., & Makvandi, B. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on psychological flexibility and rumination in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. Journal of Middle Eastern Disability Studies, 8, 46-46. (Persian)

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A Compact Scale for the Measurement of Psychological Well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.

Izadi, R., & Abedi, M. R. (2015). Treatment based on admission and commitment. Isfahan: Jungle. (Persian)

Jamshidian QalehShahi, P., Aghaei, A., & Golparvar, M. (2017). Comparing the effect of Iranian positive therapy and acceptance-commitment therapy on depression, anxiety and stress of infertile women in Isfahan city. Journal of Health Promotion Management, 6(5), 8-16. (Persian)

Jay, K. B., Madeleine, P., & Barbara, B. (2013). Rumination: Deductions on inductions. Journal of NeurologyandPsychology, 1(2), 1-5.

Jahangiri, M., Golmohemdian, M., & Hojatkhah, M. (2019). Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in rumination and psychosocial flexibility in methadone-treated addicts. Journal of Research on Addiction, 12(48), 169-184. (Persian)

Joormann, J. (2006). Differentioal effect of rumination and dysphoria on the inhibition of irrelevant emotional material: Evidence from a negative priming task. Cognitive and Research Therapy, 30, 149- 160.

Khademi, A., & Tasbihsazan, R.(2019). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on psychological well-being and happiness of mothers of children with cancer. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 5 (4), 71-78. (Persian)

Khanipour, H., Borjali, A., Mohammad Khani, P., & Sohrabi, F. (2011). The effectiveness of cognitive therapy based on the presence of mind on signs of depression and thought in patients with a major depressive period: A case study. Quarterly Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2 (7), 50-31. (Persian)

Lotfi Nia, A. (2007). Comparison of problem solving methods in depressed students with rumination response. Ph. D dissertation, Psychiatric Institute. (Persian)

Lotfi, S. (2015). Group teaching ACT-based anxiety control on satisfaction of life, happiness and anxiety in students. Master's Degree in Public Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Research Branch of Khorasan Razavi (Neyshabur). (Persian)

Mackay, M. (2008). Hand book of research method in abnormal and clinical psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Mansouri, A., Farnam, A., Bakhshi PourRoodsari, A., & Mahmoodallilo, M. (2010). Comparison of rumination in patients with major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder and normal people. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences & Health Services (3), 195-189. (Persian)

Martin, D. L., Oren, Z., & Boone, K. (1991). Major depressives and dysthymics performance on the Wisconsin card sorting test. Journal of ClinicalPsychology, 47, 684-690.

Mirmohdi, R., Saffarinia, M., & Sharifi, A. (2014). Spirituality Therapy and Positive Psychology Approach. Tehran: Avay Noor Publishing. (Persian)

Moradi, K., & Dehghani, A. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment-based therapy (ACT) on happiness and social desirability. Journal of Women and Family. 12(42), 113-126. (Persian)

Moslem Khani, M., Ebrahimi, M. E., & Sahebi, A. (2019). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on happiness and hope of Hamedanian multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of Pajouhan Scientific, 17 (2), 15-23. (Persian)

Narimani, M., Alamdari, A., & Abolqasemi, A. S. (2014). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on the quality of life of infertile women. Family Counseling and Behavior Therapy, 4 (3), 405-387. (Persian)

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on psychological science3(5), 400-424.

Peterson, B. D., Newton, C. R., Rosen, K. H., & Schulman, R. S. (2004). Dyadic coping processes of men and women in infertile couples and their relationship to infertility stress, marital adjustment, and depression. Fertility and Sterility82, S104.

Petts, R. A., Duenas, J. A., & Gaynor, S. T. (2017). Acceptance and commitment therapy for adolescent depression: Application with a diverse and predominantly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science6(2), 134-144.

Robinson, S. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2003). Negative inferential style and stress-reactive rumination: interactive risk factors in the etiology of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research27, 275-291.

Rosner, M. (2012). Recovery from traumatic loss: A study of women living without children after infertility. Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations, University of Pennsylvania.

Rostami, M., Rasouli, M., & Kasaee, A. (2019). Comparison of the effect of group counseling based on spirituality-based therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on improving the quality of life the elderly. Journal of Applied Counseling, 9(1), 87-110.

Samadi, H., & Doostkam, M. (2017). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on marital compatibility in infertile woman, Though & Behavior in Clinical Psychology Journal, 11(43), 67-76. (Persian)

Samani, S., & Torabi, A. (2011). The adolescence's happiness in different family types based on the contextual family process and content model. Journal of Applied Counseling, 1(1), 3-20.

Shahbazi, M., & Ali, G. K. (2018).The study and comparison of marital satisfaction, quality of life, happiness and life expectancy among married women with either less or more than five years of marital. Journal of Applied Counseling, 8(2), 32-54.

Shahverdi, J., Rezaie. M., Ayaziroz Bahani, M., Sadeghi, H., Bakhtiari, M., & Shahverdi, M. (2015). The relationship of general health with happiness, feelings of humiliation and marital conflicts in infertile women in Boroujerd. Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 25 (90), 54-47. (Persian)

Volgsten, H., Skoog Svanberg A., Ekselius, L., Lunquist, O., & Poroma, I. S. (2010). Risk factors for psychiatric disorders for women and men undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. Fertility and Sterility, 93, 1088–1096.

Wells, A. (2002). Emotional disorders and metacognition: Innovative cognitive therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.ش

 

Ahadifar, F. (2015). Effectiveness of MCT treatment on ruminating and depression of female teachers. Thesis for Master of Science (MSc), Azad University, Neyshabur. (Persian)

Alipour, A., Hashemi Nosrat Abad, T., Babapourkheiruddin, J. ,& Toosi, F. (2010). The Relationship between Coping Strategies and Happiness of Students. New Psychological Research (Psychology, University of Tabriz), 5 (18), 86-71. (Persian)

Almasi, M. (2016). Related factors in the happiness of infertile women in Ilam city, Nasim Health Quarterly, 5(1), 10-18. (Persian)

Asadi, S., Abedini, M., Poursarifi, H. & Nikookar, M. (2012). The Relationship between uncertainty tolerance and intellectual ruminance with concern in the student's population. Clinical Psychology, 4 (4), 91-83. (Persian)

Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. In J.P. Forgas. & J. M. Innes (Eds), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective, (pp. 189-203). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Arnow, B. A., Spangler, D., Klein, D. N., & Burns, D. D. (2004). Rumination and distraction among chronic depressives in treatment: A structural equation analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 67– 83.

Bahrami, F., & Mahmoudi, A. (2007). Effect of positive and negative induced emotions on worry and rumination caused by previous induced negative emotions. New Cognitive Science, 9 (2), 76-69. (Persian)

 De Houwer, J., Barnes‐Holmes, Y., & Barnes‐Holmes, D. (2016). Riding the waves: A functional‐cognitive perspective on the relations among behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. International Journal of Psychology51(1), 40-44.

Bordbar, L., Salehi, S., & Rahbar, T. (2016). A comparison of perfectionism and coping strategies in infertile and normal couples. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences6(1), 97-101.

Brinker, J. K., & Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology65(1), 1-19.

Davis, R. N., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research24(6), 699-711.

Demehri, F., Saeedmanesh, M., & Jala, N. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on rumination and well-being in adolescents with general anxiety disorder. Journal of Middle Eastern Disability Studies, 8, 25-25. (Persian)

Faal Kalkhoran, L., Bahrami,; Farrokhi, N.A., Zeraati, H., & Trrahomi, M. (2011). Comparison of anxiety, depression and marital satisfaction in two selected groups of fertile and infertile women in Tehran. Fertility and Infertility, 12 (2), 163-157. (Persian)

Farid, F. (2013). The effectiveness of teaching the components of happiness on positive and negative affect and quality of life in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Master's thesis in consulting and guidance. Islamic Azad University, Research Center of Khorasan Razavi (Neyshabur). (Persian)

Hadi Nejad, H., & Zeraati, F. (2009). Reliability, validity and standardization of the Oxford Happiness Inventory, Psychological Research, 12 (1 and 2), 75-62. (Persian)

Hashemi, Ali poor, A., & Feili, A. (2013). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management therapy on happiness among infertile women, Armaghane-danesh, Armaghane-danesh, Journal of Yasuj University Medical Sciences. 18(9), 678-686. (Persian)

Hayes, S. C. (2005). Stability and change in cognitive behavior therapy: Considering the implications of ACT and RFT. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy23(2), 131-151.

Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J., & Levin, M. E. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy as a unified model of behavior change. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(7), 976-1002.

Hayes, S. C., & Lillis, J. A. S. O. N. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Theories of psychotherapy. The American Psychological Association, Washington DC.

Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behavior Research and Therapy44(1), 1-25.

Hayes, S. C., & Strosahl, K. D. (Eds.). (2010). A practical guide to acceptance and commitment therapy. Springer Science & Business Media.

Heydari, P., & Latif Nezhad, R. (2010). The relationship between psychosocial factors and marital satisfaction of infertile women. Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 14 (1), 32-26. (Persian)

Heidari, F., Asgari, P., Heidari, A, Pasha, R., & Makvandi, B. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on psychological flexibility and rumination in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. Journal of Middle Eastern Disability Studies, 8, 46-46. (Persian)

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A Compact Scale for the Measurement of Psychological Well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.

Izadi, R., & Abedi, M. R. (2015). Treatment based on admission and commitment. Isfahan: Jungle. (Persian)

Jamshidian QalehShahi, P., Aghaei, A., & Golparvar, M. (2017). Comparing the effect of Iranian positive therapy and acceptance-commitment therapy on depression, anxiety and stress of infertile women in Isfahan city. Journal of Health Promotion Management, 6(5), 8-16. (Persian)

Jay, K. B., Madeleine, P., & Barbara, B. (2013). Rumination: Deductions on inductions. Journal of NeurologyandPsychology, 1(2), 1-5.

Jahangiri, M., Golmohemdian, M., & Hojatkhah, M. (2019). Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in rumination and psychosocial flexibility in methadone-treated addicts. Journal of Research on Addiction, 12(48), 169-184. (Persian)

Joormann, J. (2006). Differentioal effect of rumination and dysphoria on the inhibition of irrelevant emotional material: Evidence from a negative priming task. Cognitive and Research Therapy, 30, 149- 160.

Khademi, A., & Tasbihsazan, R.(2019). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on psychological well-being and happiness of mothers of children with cancer. Iranian Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 5 (4), 71-78. (Persian)

Khanipour, H., Borjali, A., Mohammad Khani, P., & Sohrabi, F. (2011). The effectiveness of cognitive therapy based on the presence of mind on signs of depression and thought in patients with a major depressive period: A case study. Quarterly Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2 (7), 50-31. (Persian)

Lotfi Nia, A. (2007). Comparison of problem solving methods in depressed students with rumination response. Ph. D dissertation, Psychiatric Institute. (Persian)

Lotfi, S. (2015). Group teaching ACT-based anxiety control on satisfaction of life, happiness and anxiety in students. Master's Degree in Public Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Research Branch of Khorasan Razavi (Neyshabur). (Persian)

Mackay, M. (2008). Hand book of research method in abnormal and clinical psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Mansouri, A., Farnam, A., Bakhshi PourRoodsari, A., & Mahmoodallilo, M. (2010). Comparison of rumination in patients with major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder and normal people. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences & Health Services (3), 195-189. (Persian)

Martin, D. L., Oren, Z., & Boone, K. (1991). Major depressives and dysthymics performance on the Wisconsin card sorting test. Journal of ClinicalPsychology, 47, 684-690.

Mirmohdi, R., Saffarinia, M., & Sharifi, A. (2014). Spirituality Therapy and Positive Psychology Approach. Tehran: Avay Noor Publishing. (Persian)

Moradi, K., & Dehghani, A. (2018). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment-based therapy (ACT) on happiness and social desirability. Journal of Women and Family. 12(42), 113-126. (Persian)

Moslem Khani, M., Ebrahimi, M. E., & Sahebi, A. (2019). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on happiness and hope of Hamedanian multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of Pajouhan Scientific, 17 (2), 15-23. (Persian)

Narimani, M., Alamdari, A., & Abolqasemi, A. S. (2014). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on the quality of life of infertile women. Family Counseling and Behavior Therapy, 4 (3), 405-387. (Persian)

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on psychological science3(5), 400-424.

Peterson, B. D., Newton, C. R., Rosen, K. H., & Schulman, R. S. (2004). Dyadic coping processes of men and women in infertile couples and their relationship to infertility stress, marital adjustment, and depression. Fertility and Sterility82, S104.

Petts, R. A., Duenas, J. A., & Gaynor, S. T. (2017). Acceptance and commitment therapy for adolescent depression: Application with a diverse and predominantly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science6(2), 134-144.

Robinson, S. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2003). Negative inferential style and stress-reactive rumination: interactive risk factors in the etiology of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research27, 275-291.

Rosner, M. (2012). Recovery from traumatic loss: A study of women living without children after infertility. Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations, University of Pennsylvania.

Rostami, M., Rasouli, M., & Kasaee, A. (2019). Comparison of the effect of group counseling based on spirituality-based therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on improving the quality of life the elderly. Journal of Applied Counseling, 9(1), 87-110.

Samadi, H., & Doostkam, M. (2017). Investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on marital compatibility in infertile woman, Though & Behavior in Clinical Psychology Journal, 11(43), 67-76. (Persian)

Samani, S., & Torabi, A. (2011). The adolescence's happiness in different family types based on the contextual family process and content model. Journal of Applied Counseling, 1(1), 3-20.

Shahbazi, M., & Ali, G. K. (2018).The study and comparison of marital satisfaction, quality of life, happiness and life expectancy among married women with either less or more than five years of marital. Journal of Applied Counseling, 8(2), 32-54.

Shahverdi, J., Rezaie. M., Ayaziroz Bahani, M., Sadeghi, H., Bakhtiari, M., & Shahverdi, M. (2015). The relationship of general health with happiness, feelings of humiliation and marital conflicts in infertile women in Boroujerd. Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 25 (90), 54-47. (Persian)

Volgsten, H., Skoog Svanberg A., Ekselius, L., Lunquist, O., & Poroma, I. S. (2010). Risk factors for psychiatric disorders for women and men undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. Fertility and Sterility, 93, 1088–1096.

Wells, A. (2002). Emotional disorders and metacognition: Innovative cognitive therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Wells, A.,  & King, P. (2006). Metacognitine. Therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: An open trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37, 206-212.

Wells, A.,  & King, P. (2006). Metacognitine. Therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: An open trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37, 206-212.